Yesterday evening, one of Google’s security researchers publicly released vulnerability details and a working exploit for an unpatched vulnerability in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. This afternoon, we’ve released security advisory 2219475 with official guidance. We’d like to use this blog entry to share more details about the issue and ways you can protect yourself.
Firstly, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows 2000 are not impacted by this vulnerability. Those platforms do not include the Help and Support Center application, which contains this vulnerability.
However, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 do include the Help and Support Center application (helpctr.exe). On those platforms, clicking on an hcp:// link launches helpctr.exe via a registered protocol handler. Launching the Help and Support Center via an hcp:// link is normally safe and is a supported way to launch help content. This is due in part to an “allow list” of safe pages that Help and Support Center checks before navigating to a passed-in page. The Google security researcher found a help page with a cross-site scripting vulnerability and also a mechanism by which to abuse the allow list functionality to access that page with an exploit querystring. Clicking on a malicious hcp:// link leverages the XSS vulnerability to circumvent helpctr.exe’s safety controls and ultimately run an arbitrary exe installed on the machine.
It’s also important to note that while Windows Server 2003 does include helpctr.exe and the hcp:// protocol handler, the specific exploit posted by the Google security researcher does not result in code execution on Windows Server 2003. We are still investigating this and have not yet ruled out the possibility of code execution.
How to Protect Yourself
The full-disclosure advisory included a hotfix tool built by the Google security researcher. Unfortunately it is ineffective at preventing the vulnerable code from being reached and can be easily bypassed. We recommend not counting on the Google hotfix tool for protection from the issue.
The best workaround is to unregister the hcp:// protocol handler. Doing so will prevent the chain-of-events that leads to the code execution. Here is a registry script to disable the protocol handler:
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00 [-HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\HCP]
Pasting this into a .reg file and opening with regedt32 will disable the hcp:// protocol handler. You can find the interactive steps and the rollback instructions in the security advisory.
The Help and Support Center does use hcp:// links internally so temporarily disabling the protocol handler may impact Help and Support Center’s ability to, for example, initiate Remote Assistance requests.
We are actively working on a security update to comprehensively address the issue. We are also working on a Microsoft FixIt to automate disabling the hcp:// protocol handler.
Thanks to the MSRC Engineering team for the quick investigation of this issue: David Ross, Chengyun Chu, Bruce Dang, Andrew Roths, and Jonathan Ness.
*Posting is provided “AS IS” with no warranties, and confers no rights.*