This is one of those posts that's really about "unexciting" you rather than the other way around unfortunately. I got a question the other day from someone who noticed a new User Profile Claim Provider when creating a web application policy in central admin:
Unfortunately this does not mean that there is a new provider in SharePoint 2013 that you can consume. This particular provider ships out of the box but is for the exclusive use of Duet. The provider is used to add SAP roles that are stored in the Profile DB to users. So this is just to let you know – it's not there for general purpose use, if you want to use the profile system as a directory store you'll need to do the work yourself to create one – sorry.