1 - Extend system partition:
This article discusses the support boundaries that Microsoft Customer Support Services (CSS) provides for use of Microsoft Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE) to extend the drive that contains the Microsoft Windows operating system. Windows PE can be used to extend both the system and boot partitions if they are separate.
To use Windows PE to extend the drive that contains the Windows operating system, the customer must meet the following requirements:
- The version of Windows PE must be Microsoft Windows PE 2005 or a later version. Windows PE 2005 is based on Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1).
- The hard disk partition that is being extended must be running Windows Server 2003 or a later version.
- The kind of disk that is being extended must be basic and not dynamic.
- The hard disk partition that is being extended must have free space directly next to the partition that is being extended.
- The file system on the hard disk partition that is being extended must be a NTFS file system.
To use Windows PE to extend the drive that contains the Windows operating system, follow these steps:
1. Perform a full backup on the hard disk partition that is being extended.
Note If you back up the data on this hard disk partition, the data will not be lost in case there is a problem or corruption occurs.
2. Make sure that unallocated space is available on the hard disk next to the hard disk partition that is being extended. You can use the software utility that is provided by the hardware vendor to physically create unallocated space on the hard disk.
3. Restart the computer by using the Windows PE CD.
4. Open a command prompt.
5. At the command prompt, type Diskpart.exe, and then press ENTER.
6. Type List volume, and then press ENTER to display the existing volumes.
7. Type Select volume volume number. volume number is the number of the volume that you want to extend.
8. Type Extend, and then press ENTER to extend the hard disk partition into the free space.
Note You can use the size=N option to specify how much space in megabytes (MB) to add to the current partition. If no size is specified, the disk is extended to use all the contiguous unallocated space. For example, type extend size=2000 to add 2,000 MB of free space to the current hard disk partition.
For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
325590 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/325590/ ) How to use Diskpart.exe to extend a data volume in Windows Server 2003, in Windows XP, and in Windows 2000
9. To exit the command prompt, type exit, and then press ENTER.
10. Restart the computer, and then log on to Windows.
11. Verify that the hard disk partition that contains the operating system is now extended to include the available free space.
Support boundaries for using Windows PE to extend the drive that contains the Windows operating system
Data Volumes on any OS or System Partition in windows 2008:
This article describes the following:
· How to use the Diskpart.exe command prompt utility to extend a data volume into unallocated space in Windows Server 2003, in Windows XP, and in Microsoft Windows 2000.
· How to extend the boot partition in Windows Server 2008.
How to use Diskpart.exe to extend a data volume in Windows Server 2003, in Windows XP, and in Windows 2000
You can use the Diskpart.exe utility to manage disks, partitions, and volumes from a command-line interface. You can use Diskpart.exe on both Basic disks and Dynamic disks. If an NTFS volume resides on a hardware RAID 5 container that can add space to the container, you can extend the NTFS Volume with Diskpart.exe while the disk remains a Basic disk.
Use the extend command to incorporate unallocated space into an existing volume while preserving the data.
The following are the requirements for the extend command:
· The volume must be formatted with the NTFS file system.
· For Basic volumes, the unallocated space for the extension must be the next contiguous space on the same disk.
· For Dynamic Volumes, the unallocated space can be any empty area on any Dynamic disk on the system.
· Only the extension of data volumes is supported. System or boot volumes may be blocked from being extended, and you may receive the following error:
Diskpart failed to extend the volume. Please make sure the volume is valid for extending
· You cannot extend the partition if the system page file is located on the partition. Move the page file to a partition that you do not want to extend.
To extend a partition or volume, you must first select the volume to give it the focus, and then you can specify how large to make the extension. To extend a volume, follow these steps:
1. At a command prompt, type diskpart.exe.
2. Type list volume to display the existing volumes on the computer.
3. Type Select volume volume number where volume number is number of the volume that you want to extend.
4. Type extend [size=n] [disk=n] [noerr]. The following describes the parameters:
The space, in megabytes (MB), to add to the current partition. If you do not specify a size, the disk is extended to use all the next contiguous unallocated space.
The dynamic disk on which to extend the volume. Space equal to size=n is allocated on the disk. If no disk is specified, the volume is extended on the current disk.
For scripting only. When an error is thrown, this parameter specifies that Diskpart continue to process commands as if the error did not occur. Without the noerr parameter, an error causes Diskpart to exit with an error code.
5. Type exit to exit Diskpart.exe.
How to extend the boot partition in Windows Server 2008
To extend the boot partition in Windows Server 2008, follow these steps:
1. Click Start, and then click Server Manager.
2. In the navigation pane, expand Storage, and then click Disk Management.
3. In the details pane, right-click the volume that you want, and then click Extend Volume.
4. Follow the instructions in the Extend Volume Wizard to extend the boot partition.
Note You can only extend the boot partition in contiguous unallocated disk space.
How to extend a data volume in Windows Server 2003, in Windows XP, in Windows 2000, and in Windows Server 2008
Not supported but might work, System Partition in windows 2003:
The Diskpart.exe utility that is included in Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and in Microsoft Windows XP does not let you extend the Windows boot and system partitions into unallocated space.
The Diskpart.exe utility supports only the extension of data partitions. System or boot partitions may be blocked from being extended. You may receive the following error after you try to extend a system or boot partition:
Diskpart failed to extend the volume. Please make sure the volume is valid for extending.
The Diskpart.exe utility that is included with the Microsoft Windows 2000 Resource Kit may let you extend Windows 2000 boot and system partitions into unallocated space. However, the file system may not be extended, and when you try to extend boot or system partitions, your computer may stop responding.
Caution You may find that Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 1 (SP1) lets you use the Diskpart.exe utility to extend Windows boot and system partitions. The boot and system partitions may be extended, but the file system may not be extended. Therefore, your computer may stop responding if you try to extend the boot and system partitions. The Diskpart.exe utility was not intended for extending Windows boot and system partitions.
Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 include the Diskpart.exe utility as part of the base operating system.
To download the Diskpart.exe utility for Windows 2000, visit the following Microsoft Web site:
886986 Functionality restrictions of the Diskpart.exe utility to extend system and boot partitions in Windows Server 2003 and in Windows XP
2 - Disk Cleanup:
The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete. You can choose to delete some or all of the files. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk:
· Remove temporary Internet files.
· Remove downloaded program files. For example, ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet.
· Empty the Recycle Bin.
· Remove Windows temporary files.
· Remove optional Windows components that you are not using.
· Remove installed programs that you no longer use.
While Windows is running , you may receive a "low disk space" message in the notification area. This may prevent the ability to download and install Windows updates.
This article describes how to reclaim disk space on a Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 based systems.
You may have to reclaim disk space on your computer so that you can install additional Windows updates, service packs, and programs. Or, you may have to do this in order to save additional personal files.
Run the Disk Cleanup tool
The Disk Cleanup tool searches your hard disk for files that you can safely delete. You can choose to delete some of or all these files.
For more information about the Disk Cleanup tool, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
310312 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310312/ ) Description of the Disk Cleanup Tool in Windows XP
To start the Disk Cleanup tool, use one of the following methods:
- Click Start, click Run, type cleanmgr in the Open box, and then press ENTER.
- Click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Disk Cleanup.
- In Windows Explorer or in My Computer, right-click the drive on which you want to reclaim disk space, and then click Properties. In the Properties dialog box, click the General tab, and then click Disk Cleanup.
To reclaim space on your hard disk, click the Disk Cleanup tab, select one or more files to be deleted, and then click OK.
Note By default, some files are automatically selected. You can accept the default setting by clicking OK.
The listed files can include items from the following:
- Temporary Setup Files
These are files that were created by a Setup program that is no longer running.
- Downloaded Program Files
Downloaded program files are ActiveX controls and Java programs that are downloaded automatically from the Internet when you view certain Web pages. These files are temporarily stored in the Downloaded Program Files folder on the hard disk. When you click the Temporary Setup Files item, you see a View Files button that lets you review the files before Disk Cleanup deletes them. This button opens the C:\Winnt\Downloaded Program Files folder.
Note Downloaded program files are selected by default.
- Temporary Internet Files
This folder contains Web pages that are stored on your hard disk for quick viewing. Disk Cleanup deletes these pages but leaves your personalized settings for Web pages intact. When you click the Temporary Internet Files item, you see a View Files button. This button opens the C:\Documents and Settings\ Username \Local Settings\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5 folder.
- Offline Webpages
Offline pages are webpages that are stored on your computer so you can view them without being connected to the Internet. If you delete these pages now, you can still view your favorites offline later by synchronizing them. Your personalized settings for webpages will be left intact.
- Old Chkdsk Files
When the Chkdsk tool checks a disk for errors, it might save lost file fragments as files in the root folder on the disk. These files are unnecessary.
- Recycle Bin
The Recycle Bin contains files that you have deleted from the system. These files are not permanently removed until you empty the Recycle Bin. When you click the Recycle Bin item, you see a View Files button that opens the Recycle Bin.
- Setup Log Files
- Files created by Windows.
- Temporary Files
Programs sometimes store temporary information in a Temp folder. Before a program exits, it typically deletes this information. You can safely delete temporary files that have not been modified within the last week.
- WebClient/Publisher Temporary Files
The WebClient/Publisher service maintains a cache of accessed files on this disk. These files are kept locally for performance reasons only, and can be deleted safely.
- Temporary Offline Files
Temporary offline files are local copies of recently used network files. These files are automatically cached so that you can use them after you disconnect from the network. When you click the Temporary Offline Files item, you see a View Files button that opens the Offline Files folder.
- Offline Files
Offline files are local copies of network files that you specifically want to have available offline so that you can use them after you disconnect from the network. When you click the Offline Files item, you see a View Files button that opens the Offline Files folder.
- Compress Old Files
Windows can compress files that you have not used recently. When you compress old files, you save disk space. However, you can still use these files, and no files are deleted. Because files are compressed at different rates, the displayed amount of disk space that you will gain is approximate. You can use the Options button to specify the number of days to wait before Disk Cleanup compresses an unused file.
- Catalog Files for the Content Indexer
The Indexing service speeds up and improves file searches by maintaining an index of the files that are on the disk. These Catalog files remain from earlier indexing operations, and they can be safely deleted.
The More Options tab in the Disk Cleanup dialog box contains options for cleaning up Windows components or installed programs. By using these options, you can reclaim additional space on the computer:
- The Windows Components option creates free space by removing optional Windows components that you do not use. By clicking Clean Up, you start the Windows Components Wizard.
- The Installed Programs option reclaims more disk space by removing programs that you do not use. By clicking Clean Up, you start the Change or Remove Programs option in the Add or Remove Programs tool.
- The System Restore option creates free space by removing all restore points except for the most recent one.
Delete memory dump files, and modify the Startup and Recovery options
Memory dump files are created when system failures occur, and they can be used to determine the cause of a failure. These files can be safely deleted if they are no longer required.
To delete memory dump files, follow these steps:
1. Delete the files in the %AllUsersProfile%\Application Data\Microsoft\Dr Watson folder. These log and memory dump files are created when applications stop working.
2. Delete the files in the %Windir%\minidump folder. These minidump files are created when Windows stops responding or crashes.
3. Delete the %SystemRoot%\MEMORY.dmp file. This is the complete memory dump file that is created when Windows stops responding or crashes.
You may also want to prevent your system from creating a complete memory dump file in the future. Complete memory dump files record the contents of system memory when the computer stops responding or crashes. These complete memory dump files can be very large. To save space, you can modify your Startup and Recovery options to create only a small memory dump file.
To configure the system to create a small memory dump file instead of a complete dump file when failures occur, follow these steps:
1. Right-click My Computer, and then click Properties.
2. Click the Advanced tab, and then click Settings under Startup and Recovery.
3. Under Write Debugging Information, select the kind of information that you want Windows to record in a memory dump file if the computer stops responding. To record the smallest volume of information for use in troubleshooting the problem, select the Small Memory Dump option. This option requires a paging file of at least 2 megabytes (MB) on the boot volume of the computer, and it specifies that Windows will create a new file every time that the system stops responding or crashes.
4. Click OK.
Delete the remote desktop connection cache files
If you delete the cache files, the screen may not update very quickly while you are running Remote Desktop Connection.
To delete the Remote Desktop Connection cache files, delete all the bitmap cache files (files that use the .bmc extension) in the %Userprofile%\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Terminal Server Client\cache folder.
Disable other Windows features
Warning Although disabling certain Windows features can save disk space, this may affect the performance and functionality of the computer. Consider the effect that this option will have on the computer before you disable Windows features.
You have the following options:
- Disable hibernation, and delete the hibernation file.
1. Disable the hibernation file. For more information about how to disable the hibernation file, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
920730 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/920730/ ) How to disable and re-enable hibernation on a computer that is running Windows Vista
2. Delete the %SystemDrive%\hiberfil.sys file.
- Move the paging file to another volume, disable it, or delete it.
- Disable or move the paging file. To do this, see the "Change the size of the virtual memory paging file" article in Microsoft TechNet. To do this, visit the following Microsoft Web site:
- Delete the %SystemDrive%\Pagefile.sys file.
Delete Windows update files
Warning If you delete the folder for each update, the corresponding Windows update cannot be uninstalled. Consider the effect that this will have on the computer before you delete the Windows update files.
To delete Windows update files, follow these steps:
1. Delete only those %Windir%/$NtUninstallKB number$ folders that were created more than a month ago as backup files for Windows updates. Do not delete those that were created within the last 30 days.
2. To delete the download cache for Windows updates, delete all the folders in the %Windir%\SoftwareDistribution\download folder that were created more than 10 days ago.
3. Delete the following log files in the %Windir% folder:
Delete Windows service pack files
Warning If you delete the backup folders for each Windows service pack, you will be unable to uninstall Windows service packs.
If you delete the folder for the installation files and the cache for the Windows service pack, you will be unable to restore corrupted Windows service pack files or to install additional Windows features that are not installed by default. You may want to keep a copy of these files in another location. For more information about how to keep a copy of these files, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
271484 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/271484/ ) Files and folders are added to your system after service pack is installed
Consider the effect that this will have on your computer before you delete these files.
To delete Windows service pack files, follow these steps:
1. Delete the %Windir%\$NtServicePackUninstall$ folder to delete the backup folders for the Windows XP service packs.
2. Delete the %Windir%\ServicePackFiles folder to delete installation files and cache folders for the Windows XP service packs.
956324 How to reclaim disk space on Windows XP and Windows Server 2008-based computers