This is currently not meant to be an exhaustive article, but more of a foot note in my research of SharePoint 2016. I was recently asked what would be the functionality lose to the BI Stack if a customer installed SQL 2016 Standard license, and so began the chase.
Spoke with many people and was pointed to many vague articles but in the end all the answers were here.
If you install SQL 2016 Standard license with SharePoint 2016 you will not be able to use PowerPivot for SharePoint, it turns out that this requires that the SSAS be installed on SQL 2016 Enterprise. Which means that you could add this as a phase 2 if you wanted to.
Articles of Interest: